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Male Fertility Issues

Male Fertility Issues

Many people are surprised to learn that men actually account for 30% of infertility in couples¹. The good news for men however, is that most diagnosis and treatment needed is non-invasive.

The most common fertility issues in males are:
Low Sperm Motility (i.e. sperm don’t swim very well)

Sperm can generally survive for 3 days, in some cases up to 5 days, which means there is a limited time frame for the sperm to reach the waiting egg. If the sperm fail to move or move too slowly, they will die before they reach their destination. The most common treatment for this is IUI, where the sperm is placed into the uterus to wait for the egg, meaning it doesn’t have to travel far.

*Note – Too frequent sex can affect sperm motility. The ideal frequency for intercourse when trying to conceive is every second day from cycle day 10 to cycle day 16 (assuming you ovulate around day 14).

Low Sperm Count

When the number of sperm is low, the chances of them reaching and fertilising an egg is reduced. In mild cases, IUI (intrauterine insemination) may be an appropriate course of action, as it places the sperm into the uterus, giving it the best possible chance to both reach and fertilise an egg.

If the sperm count is significantly reduced, then ICSI (intracytoplasmic sperm injection) will likely be recommended so that a single sperm can be directly injected into the egg.

Abnormal Sperm Morphology (abnormally shaped sperm)

Abnormally shaped sperm have a reduced ability to (a) fertilise eggs and (b) produce viable embryos. ICSI is usually the standard treatment option in this case, however lifestyle changes (see below) can significantly improve sperm morphology.

No Sperm (azoospermia)

1% of all men will have no sperm in their ejaculate (approximately 10 to 15% of infertile males². In some cases, this is caused by a blockage somewhere along the route from the testes to the ejaculate. In other cases, there is a partial or complete failure of the testes to produce the sperm which can be the result of a genetic abnormality.

If the sperm are being obstructed by a blockage, it is possible for a urologist to surgically extract sperm from the testes via PESA or TESA to be used to fertilise an egg via ICSI.

If it is confirmed that no sperm is being produced in the testes at all, the only option in this case is to use donor sperm in conjunction with an IUI/IVF or ICSI cycle.

Blocked vas deferens (tube)

Blockages in the tubes or the absence of tubes leading the sperm away from the testes can cause a complete lack of sperm in the ejaculate. The blockage can be caused by a previous injury to the area, previous vasectomy, infections or it can be congenital (present from birth). In some cases, blockages can be fixed, but in most cases, sperm are taken via medical aspiration and used in an IVF/ICSI cycle.

Sperm DNA Fragmentation

Despite a normal semen analysis, up to 8% of men have been shown to have high levels of sperm DNA fragmentation³, which in turn both reduces the chance of producing a pregnancy and increases the chance of miscarriage.  Causes of sperm DNA damage include drugs, chemotherapy/radiation therapy, smoking, age, hormonal factors, infrequent ejaculation and testicular hyperthermia. Depending on what has caused the damage to the sperm DNA will determine whether or not it can be improved without the need to move to IVF/ICSI. 

Anti-Sperm Antibodies

These antibodies can attach to the sperm’s tails making the sperm clump together, impeding the sperm’s ability to travel through cervical mucous to the egg, and if by chance they do make it through, it will make it difficult for the sperm to attach to the egg. Though steroid treatment can be an option to lower antibody levels, the more common treatment solution is IVF with ICSI.


While there is a decrease in fertility as men age, as well as an increased risk of genetic defects, as a general rule, age does not have anywhere near the impact it does on fertility (and miscarriage for that matter) for men as it does for women.

Klinefelter Syndrome

Klinefelter Syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that affects males. The male will have an additional X chromosome which causes infertility, low testosterone and other characteristics that will become more apparent as he hits puberty. Klinefelter Syndrome is one of the most common male chromosomal variations – however only a quarter will ever be diagnosed, and of those who are, it will not be discovered until well into adulthood. Options for men with Klinefelter Syndrome who want to have children are becoming more and more widely available.

Treatment Options for Men

Remembering that sperm is regenerated every 3 months, lifestyle changes can make a huge difference in the quality of sperm over time. Certain things have been proven to improve the quality of a man’s sperm so that the need for medical intervention becomes unnecessary:-

  • Menevit men’s multi-vitamin
  • Zinc
  • Acupuncture
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Stop smoking
  • Reduce alcohol intake to 1 or 2 drinks a week (preferably none!)
  • Reduce caffeine intake to 1 per day
  • Improve diet
  • Wear boxer shorts instead of briefs to prevent testes becoming overheated
  • Make sure mobile phone is kept in back pocket or suit jacket pocket
  • Avoid exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins

If it is deemed that medical intervention is the best course of action, the following procedures are the gold standard:

  • IUI
  • IVF
  • ICSI
  • Testicular Sperm Aspiration / Surgical Sperm Retrieval

1. Winters BR, Walsh TJ. The epidemiology of male infertility. Urol Clin North Am 2014;41(1):195–204.
2. Jarow JP, Espeland MA, Lipshultz LI. Evaluation of the Azoospermic Patient. Journal of Urology. 1989 Jul;142(1):62–5.
3. Sakkas D, Alvarez JG. Sperm DNA fragmentation: mechanisms of origin, impact on reproductive outcome, and analysis. Fertility and Sterility [Internet]. 2010 Mar 1 [cited 2021 Aug 17];93(4):1027–36. Available from: https://www.fertstert.org/article/S0015-0282(09)03966-1/fulltext